Khosrov preserve is one of the oldest preserves in history. Ancient History Encyclopedia. There were also two entrances to the church, on southern and western sides. Over time, Ayvirank grew from being a small chapel into a monastic community. Le monastère de Gherart abrite un certain nombre d'églises et de tombes – pour la plupart troglodytes – représentatives de l'apogée de l'architecture médiévale arménienne. In its floor there are burial vaults. The jhamatun of Papak and Ruzukana was hewn in 1288 on a second level, north of the Proshians’ burial-vault, by way of an external staircase (near the door to the gavit). L’église principale dite Katoghiké fut construite en 1215. The masonry of the external walls is particularly finely finished and fitted. In addition, you can visit the Garni temple on your way. Out of all the bodies buried there, only the mausoleums of the Proshian princes Merik and Grigor have been preserved. In Armenia and in the other neighboring churches, this wonderful spear blessed people, prevented them from various disasters and epidemics. The main rectangular space of the church is crowned with a tent and complicated with an altar apse and two deep niches, which gave the interior an incomplete cross-cupola shape. After a short time, the Proshyans built the cave structures which made Geghard very popular. Il faut passer sous les deux personnages pour entrer dans l’église de la vierge (sourp Adzvadzadzin, 1283) qui était probablement la chapelle attenante aux sépultures Prochian. The complex of medieval buildings is set into a landscape of great natural beauty, surrounded by towering cliffs at the entrance to the Azat Valley. B. It is also named after the king. A hole in the back right corner gives a view of the tomb downstairs. The adjacent gavit with nine arches was built in 1215-1225. It is partly hewed in massive solid rock; its composition was, in all probability, largely influenced by the shape of the cave which existed there. Most likely, it is the primary purpose of the gavit. St. Astvatsatsin (Holy Mother of God) chapel is the most ancient preserved monument outside the ramparts and is located on the western side. There are twin and triple chapels with one entrance, some of the entrances ornamented with carvings. There were khachkars (cross-stones) illustrated on the church walls of the church. It perhaps pictures the Proshyans. It is also believed that St. Gregory the Illuminator also lived in one of these caves. Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0, 格加尔德修道院由许多教堂和坟墓组成,大部分建筑物都矗立在岩石之中,代表了亚美尼亚中世纪建筑的巅峰之作。这些中世纪建筑群周围环绕的便是阿扎特山谷(the Azat Valley)入口处的悬崖绝壁,与美丽的自然景观浑然一体。. From Yerevan, it is only 36 km far. To meet conservation challenges, scientific research, renovation, fortification, design and preventive measures have been undertaken in order to ensure that authenticity is retained. Ce sera une grimpette sur le Mont Aragats, suivie d’une visite du monastère de Geghard et un coup d’œil au temple de Garni pour finir. The complex of medieval buildings is set into a landscape of great natural beauty, at the entrance to the Azat Valley. Three Khachkars at Geghard Monastery in Armenia. The preserve remained untouched for 17 centuries. The complex was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2000 CE. Geghard is renown throughout Armenia for its medieval art and architecture, and local traditions associate the site with Saint Gregory the Illuminator (c. 257 – c. 331 CE) who came to the area to found a small Christian chapel in the 4th century CE. De vele innovatieve kenmerken hebben grote invloed gehad op latere ontwikkelingen in de regio. يحوي دير غيرارت عدداً من الكنائس والمقابر التي هي في غالبيتها لسكان الكهوف والتي تمثّل أوج الهندسة المعمارية الأرمنية الخاصة بالقرون الوسطى. The spear was kept in the Monastery for 500 years. Geghard. Most of the monks lived in cells excavated into the rock-face outside the main defensive wall, which have been preserved, along with some simple oratories. On the southern side of the corridor which leads to the zhamatun, there are many crosses cut. Geghard est un village d'Arménie centrale dans la province de Kotayk.C'est, à juste titre, l’un des lieux de visite les plus célèbres de l’Arménie. No wonder the Geghard complex is one of the most popular destinations for both the locals and the tourists alike. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. 28 Sep 2020. For this purpose, we amass data which covers all the relevant and needed things for those who have the wish to explore more about Armenia. At the early period, the Monastery was called Ayrivank (Monastery in the Cave) because of its rock-cut construction. Au-dessus on remarque un bas-relief représentant la tête d’une bête à cornes tenant dans sa gueule deux chaînes reliées à deux lions tenus ainsi en laisse, et dont la queue se termine en dragon. Issues concerning conservation, rehabilitation and use of the sites are discussed at specialized councils formed by the Ministry of Culture of Armenia (methodological and architectural councils) and the Mother See of Holy Echmiadzin, where representatives of both sides are equally represented. On internal walls, you can find many inscriptions. "Advisory Body Evaluation (ICOMOS): Geghard (Armenia). La « coupole » est percée pour laisser entrer la lumière. Various earthquakes caused cracks on the walls. Pour accéder à l’église il faut traverser un vestibule (gavit ou jamadoun en arménien) (B) construit entre 1215 et 1225, c’est-à-dire juste après la finition de l’église. Completely dug out of the rock, it has an equal-armed cross shaped plan. The arches are squat since they are hand carved. The arched top of the arcature of the cupola's drum has detailed reliefs showing birds, human masks, animals heads, various rosettes and jars. It is likely that the environs around Geghard were inhabited in prehistoric times, including by the Urartians between the 8th-6th centuries BCE. They belong to 1679, 1693, 1694 and 1695 years. At the back of the gavit, in the lower corner, there is an opening which looks down into the Proshian Sepulcher. It shows two lions tied with an iron ring held by a bull’s head, over an eagle clutching a lamb. 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The monastery was defunct, the main church used to shelter the flocks of the Karapapakh nomads in winter, until resettled by a few monks from Ejmiatsin after the Russian conquest. This made it a popular place of pilgrimage for Armenian Christians over many centuries. Ayrivank suffered greatly in 923 from Nasr, a vice-regent of an Arabian caliph in Armenia, who plundered its valuable property, including unique manuscripts, and burned down the magnificent structures of the monastery. On the internal walls there are many inscriptions recording donations. Then rebuilt and restored over the next centuries, serving as the summer residence of the Catholicos of the Armenia. Geghard (Armenian: Գեղարդ, meaning "spear") is a medieval monastery in the Kotayk province of Armenia, being partially carved out of the adjacent mountain, surrounded by cliffs. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. The preserve contains very interesting sites. Les tremblements de terre eurent raison des quelques restes. Notwithstanding the ownership, the monuments are protected by the Law “On protection and usage of the historical and cultural immovable monuments and historical environment” of the Republic of Armenia, and by the regulation “On State registration, study, protection, fortification, restoration, reconstruction and usage of the historical and cultural immovable monuments”. Il faut les observer une à une. The monastery was founded, according to tradition by St. Gregory the Illuminator, and was built following the adoption of Christianity as a state religion in Armenia (beginning of the 4th century AD). Le monastère de Geghard a été fondé au IVe siècle., Site inscrit à la liste du patrimoine mondial de l'UNESCO, Article avec un listing « voir » modifié il y a plus de 2 ans, Article avec un listing « destination » modifié il y a plus de 2 ans, licence Creative Commons Attribution-partage dans les mêmes conditions. L’Arménie est un magnifique pays qui renferme un nombre considérable de complexes religieux ; au nombre de ceux-ci, nous nous intéressons au monastère de Geghard aujourd’hui. It is known that most of the monks lived in cells excavated into the rock-face outside the main enceinte, which have been preserved, along with some simple oratories. The monuments included in the property are dated from the 4th to the 13th century. L’architecte a particulièrement soigné le plafond divisé en neuf sections toutes différentes par leur taille et leur décoration. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Our mission is to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. Four massive free-standing columns in the centre support a roof of stone with a hole in the centre to admit light. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. Despite the family’s wealth and power, their graves are simple and modest. Les Zakarides furent une des plus puissantes familles du Moyen-Âge, et les bâtisseurs les plus prolifiques. S’il vous reste du temps vous pouvez vous promener dans la cour pour admirer les bas-reliefs, les décorations et aussi les nombreux khatchkar. Klášter je od roku 2000 zapsán společně s údolím na Seznamu světového dědictví UNESCO. Древние церкви и могилы монастыря Гегард, часть которых высечена прямо в скалах, представляют собой шедевры средневековой армянской архитектуры. Web. En 1240, une autre famille, les Prochian racheta Guéghard aux Zakarian. It is not clearly known when exactly the monastery was built. Copyright © 2020 by iArmenia | Design by Inexpanse. Ce jamadoun (vestibule) a le plan des autres jamadoun de Guéghard avec quatre piliers au centre. Elle prolongea l’œuvre de ses prédécesseurs, non pas en agrandissant le site mais en creusant dans le rocher auquel église et vestibule étaient adossés. Elle reproduit le plan du vestibule dont elle est mitoyenne : avec quatre arc croisés reposant sur des demi-colonnes encastrées dans le mur, articulés autour d’une pseudo-coupole flanquée de stalactites. There is no way one will feel bored, tired, exhausted or unrelaxed. This is the main church of the complex, and traditional in most respects. A special case was made for it in 1687, now kept in the museum of Echmiadzin monastery. It will be a valuable addition to your overall knowledge. Geghard was called the "monastery of the seven churches and the monastery of the forty altars" during its medieval heyday. Le monastère ne se voit pas de loin et apparaît soudain dans sa splendeur au tournant d’un virage. He is usually identified with Thaddeus and sometimes called "Jude Thaddaeus" in Christian texts. More than 20 buildings were carved directly from the side of the mountains, and these structures include tombs, chapels, vestries, and churches. They also divide the hall into nine equal parts. وتندمج هذه المجموعة من مباني القرون الوسطى الواقعة وسط انحدارات وعرة على مدخل وادي أزات في منظر طبيعي خلاب. Geghard Monastery was founded in the 4th century. The decoration of the southern wall is most interesting compositionally. On the opposite side of the altar, you can see an engraved throne with a lion-head on it. The location of the Geghard Monastery is in Upper Azat River Valley, between the cliffs. Thank you! At first Geghard Monastery was just a small cave chapel, but then eventually the complex grew beautifully and became more massive. It was a spear which the Roman centurion pierced the side of Jesus when he was on the cross. The Ministry of Culture of Armenia, with its specialized units acting as authorized republican bodies, and the Armenian Apostolic Holy Church with its specialized units and the diocese as owner, as well as non-governmental, nature protection units and people interested in Armenian heritage conservation are engaged in the protection of the monastery complex. Geghard is built into solid rock in an equal-armed cruciform fashion. The plan forms an equal-armed cross, inscribed in a square and covered with a dome on a square base. Khachkars with various ornaments are inserted into the exterior walls and hewn on the adjacent rock surfaces. One can get to Geghard in less than an hour. It was also renowned for the relics housed there. On remarque deux sirènes (oiseaux à tête de femme) deux croix d’inégale grandeur, et deux petits personnages auréolés (des princes Prochian ?). The plum is also particularly good. Elle fut construite dans les années 1240. The first rock-cut church was built before 1250, entirely dug into the rock and on an equal-armed cruciform plan. Inscriptions within the complex insinuate that construction on the main church of Geghard - Katoghike - ended around the year 1215 CE. Publications World Heritage Review Series Resource Manuals World Heritage wall map More publications ... Funding World Heritage Fund International Assistance. Elle fut détruite lors de l’occupation arabe par le régent Nasr (ou Nasser) en 923. Between 1693 and 1695 the construction of the large basilica church with tufa stones and cement came to an end. Also carved into the rock, its form reproduces that of a gavit. No works of applied art have survived in Geghard, except for the legendary spear (geghard). Geghard (Armenian: Գեղարդ, also Romanized as Geghart; formerly, Artiz) is a village in the Kotayk Province of Armenia. The meeting hall or “zhamatun” in Armenian is a square chamber cut in the rock. The chamber reached from the North East of the gavit became Prince Prosh Khaghbakian’s tomb in 1283. It is popular for its rocky sights. Le monastère de Geghard est situé sur le territoire de cette communauté. The importance of the Erebuni preserve to the world and in agriculture is priceless. On your way to the monastery, you can purchase many souvenirs. Over a short period the Proshyans built the cave structures which brought Geghard well-merited fame — the second cave church, the family sepulcher of zhamatun Papak and Ruzukan, a hall for gatherings and studies (collapsed in the middle of the 20th century) and numerous cells. Guéghard fut reconstruit pour abriter la « sainte-lance » (sourb Guéghard), la fameuse lance qui servit à transpercer le Christ afin de s’assurer qu’il était mort. Just as in the vestry, the inner surface of the tent is hewn in the graceful shape of stalactites which also decorate the capitals of the half-columns and the conch of the altar apse. Ubicado en las escarpaduras de la entrada del Valle del Azat, el conjunto de edificaciones monásticas se adapta perfectamente a la gran belleza del paisaje natural de este sitio. In the corners there are small barrel-vaulted two-storey chapels with steps protruding from the wall. He bought the monastery from the Zakarians and expanded the chamber in 1283. During the Bagratuni Kingdom (920s) the Arab army invaded Armenia and robbed the monastery by the command of Nasri. Though there are inscriptions dating to the 1160s, the main church was built in 1215 under the auspices of the brothers Zakare and Ivane (of the Zakarid-Mkhargrzeli family), the generals of Queen Tamar of Georgia, who took back most of Armenia from the Turks. C'est, à juste titre, l’un des lieux de visite les plus célèbres de l’Arménie. At this time it was also known as the Monastery of the Seven Churches and the Monastery of the Forty Altars. All structured data from the file and property namespaces is available under the Creative Commons CC0 License; all unstructured text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. Outre la riche décoration de niches, de khatchkar et de stalactites, on remarquera une représentation de bouquetin. You will also have the chance make a wish by throwing a stone. Geghard (Armenian: Geghardavank or "monastery of the spear") is a medieval monastery located in Armenia’s Kotayk province, deep within the Azat Valley, which was built directly out of an adjacent mountain. The east arm of the cross terminates in an apse, the remainder being square. One important thing was that the Holy Lance was kept here. On the sides of the cross, there are unique small crosses carved in Armenian style. La coupole est, de l’extérieur, extrêmement gracieuse, cannelée d’arcatures aveugles en haut desquelles est sculpté soit un oiseau, soit un mammifère soit un objet visuel. "Geghard." On the top of which you can find the symbols of the Tree of Life and the Sun. Its spring is considered sacred to this day. It was the will of Prosh, according to which the peasants should walk upon them since they commanded them during their time on the earth. The site is that of a spring arising in a cave which had been sacred in pre-Christian times, hence one of the names by which it was known, Ayrivank (the Monastery of the Cave). In 2000, it was designated by UNESCO as World Heritage Site. Men's figures are found on a khachkar left of the altar apse. Avazan is the first cave chamber. In addition, people use sacrifice rocks when a person brings sheep or chicken to sacrifice. La plupart ont été financés par une famille à la mémoire d’un des leurs ou en commémoration d’une donation. On both sides of the cross, you can see an illustration of a hunting scene. It is cruciform in plan. Aujourd’hui la relique est à Etchmiadzine. However, it should be noted that the oldest inscriptions at the complex are located within the small Chapel of St Gregory, and they date to the 1170s CE. Dernière modification le 21 juin 2013, à 17:47,, licence Creative Commons attribution, partage dans les mêmes conditions, comment citer les auteurs et mentionner la licence. Une première église fut construite juste au début de la christianisation de l’Arménie, à l’orée du IVe siècle. Globe-T. @ Geghard Monastery (Armenia). Arched entrance to the caves adjacent to the monastery. Il n’en reste rien et on n’en connaît l’existence que par les chroniqueurs. The shaft has a diamond-shaped plate attached to its end; a Greek cross with flared ends is cut through the plate. Retrieved from The authenticity of the group is high, not least because the property has been in continuous use as a monastery for many centuries. Walking across the complex will take one to the secondary entrance on the east, outside of which is a table for ritual animal offerings (matagh), and a bridge over the stream. Pour ne pas avoir à passer par un tour-opérateur, nous louons une voiture à la journée, et roulez jeunesse. Mkhitar Ayrivanetsi and Simeon Ayrivanetsi - Armenian historians who pioneered innovative techniques in Armenian manuscript art - lived and worked at Geghard in the 13th century CE. Le cadre est déjà enchanteur, au fond d’une gorge au … Geghard was called the "monastery of the seven churches and the monastery of the forty altars" during its medieval heyday. Het klooster van Geghard werd opgericht in de 4e eeuw en was beroemd vanwege de aanwezige relieken. The gilded silver case is an ordinary handicraft article of 17th-century Armenia. Now it is displayed in the Echmiadzin treasury. It is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site with enhanced protection[1] status. It dates back to 1215 and illustrates amazing carvings. It heals various wounds very quickly. The monastery of Geghard contains a number of churches and tombs, most of them cut into the rock, which illustrate the very peak of Armenian medieval architecture. Erebuni preserve, which is between Shorbulach and Geghadir villages. Relics of the Apostles Andrew and John were donated in the 12th century, and pious visitors made numerous grants of land, money, manuscripts, etc., over the succeeding centuries. El Monasterio de Geghard alberga varias iglesias y tumbas representativas del apogeo de la arquitectura medieval armenia, que en su mayoría están excavadas en la roca. In the 17th century, when Armenia was a part of the Persian Empire, there was an earthquake with the magnitude of 7.0, which ruined many buildings in Yerevan. Besides the forests, there are hills and rivers. This article was made possible with generous support from the National Association for Armenian Studies and Research and the Knights of Vartan Fund for Armenian Studies. The southern facade of the Katoghike has a portal with fine carvings. Ancient History Encyclopedia. The oldest inscriptions of the Chapel of St Gregory at, Construction of Katoghike, the main church of, National Association for Armenian Studies and Research, Monastery of Geghard and the Upper Azat Valley -- UNESCO, Lonely Planet Georgia, Armenia & Azerbaijan. It is where the ancient wheat of Erebuni originated. Sur, préparez votre voyage en Arménie - Monastère de Geghard en découvrant les meilleures photos des membres routard. The spectacular towering cliffs surrounding the monastery are part of the Azat River gorge, and are included together with the monastery in the World Heritage Site listing. (2018, April 27). Many feature carvings of various wild animals, flowers and other vegetation, and complex geometrical patterns rendered in high relief. Ce caveau (1283) est lui-même composé d’un vestibule (gavit ou jamadoun) et d’un sanctuaire plus petit. More Contacts Site Map Become a member Donate Now! The reliefs of the eastern wall are no less picturesque. The gavit, partly free-standing, partly carved in the cliff, dates to before 1225, and a series of chapels hewn into the rock dates from the mid-13th century following the purchase of the monastery by Prince Prosh Khaghbakian, vassal of the Zakarians and founder of the Proshian principality. The spherical dome is on the top. The rock-faces over the whole area bear elaborate crosses (khatchkar) carved in relief. Although Ayvirank was ruined, in time, a new monastery would be rebuilt in its place: Geghard. Elle compte 470 habitants en 2008[2]. Residential and economic constructions were built later, in the 17th century. Geghard (Armenian: Geghardavank or "monastery of the spear") is a medieval monastery located in Armenia ’s Kotayk province, deep within the Azat Valley, which was built directly out of an adjacent mountain. The most celebrated of these was the spear which had wounded Christ on the Cross, allegedly brought there by the Apostle Thaddeus, from which comes its present name, Geghard-avank ("the Monastery of the Spear"), first recorded in a document of 1250. A lion attacking an ox relief on the front facade of the Katoghike church, Geghard. Two pairs of intersecting pointed arches, forming the base of the tent, rest on the half-columns of the walls. The history of Geghard monastery dates back to pre-Christian times, during which it was worshipped as a sanctuary because of its sacred sources and springs. The monastery of Geghard and the Upper Azat Valley contains a number of churches and tombs, most of them cut into the living rock, which illustrate Armenian medieval architecture at its highest point. Due to the passage of time, a part of the wall adjacent to the auxiliary construction collapsed and was renovated in 2006-2007, keeping the original materials. Le premier est une très belle salle carrée séparée du second par une colonne centrale délimitant deux arcs. La façade sud celle que l’on longe, est flanquée d’une porte très richement décorée, en particulier de grenades et de ceps de vigne. The underground passages, the outside walls of Katoghike and the adjacent rocks are carved with innumerable crosses (khachkars) of the most..", Learn how and when to remove this template message, spear which had wounded Jesus at the Crucifixion, "UNESCO grants Monastery of Geghard status of Enhanced protection", St. Gregory the Illuminator Church, Galata, Cathedral of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary,, Buildings and structures in Kotayk Province, Christian monasteries established in the 4th century, Articles lacking in-text citations from July 2016, Articles containing Armenian-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 15 May 2020, at 19:24. Geghardalich (Monastery Lake): Geghardalich is located in the highlands of the Geghard plateau. You can see an inscription right at the base of the dome, which records that architect Galdzag built the church. During the history, the monastery was also subjected to the invasion of Mongols and Timur. Geghard monastery has so much to offer to its visitors and tourists. Cet ensemble de bâtiments médiévaux situé au milieu des escarpements, à l'entrée de la Vallée de l'Azat, s'intègre à un paysage d'une grande beauté naturelle. Last modified April 27, 2018. Les colonnes, dégagées de la masse du rocher, portent des arches semi-circulaires plutôt basses, intégrées dans des cadres trapézoïdaux qui eux-mêmes forment un carré qui supporte la coupole. The architecture of Geghard monastery is rather complicated since it consists of different buildings. King Khosrov III created it around 330 AD. Globe-T. @ Monastère de Geghard (Arménie). Another figure, holding a spear in the left hand, point down, and blowing an uplifted horn, is depicted almost in profile. Cette dernière est percée en son milieu pour laisser passer la lumière. Restored for tourist purposes but now with a small ecclesiastical presence, the site is still a major place of pilgrimage. There are various decorations on the walls depicting animals, crosses, warriors, ornaments of rosettes, and different geometrical figures. There are many often richly ornamented khachkars cut on rock surfaces and on the walls of the structures or put up on the grounds of Geghard in memory of a deceased or in commemoration of someone's donation to the monastery. Over the centuries the enemies and their armies have destroyed many towns and villages in Armenia, but Geghard still stands, showing that it is a symbol of great victory and the incarnation of the Armenian people’s creative spirit. The Kathoghikè (main church) is in the classic Armenian form, an equal-armed cross inscribed in a square in plan and covered with a dome on a square base, linked with the base by vaulting. When Queen Tamar (r. 1184-1213 CE) reconquered much of Armenia from the Seljuk Turks and other Turkic tribes in the late 12th and early 13th centuries, she helped stimulate a brief golden age of artistic splendor and cultural production in both Armenia and Georgia. There is a ram the head of which holds a chain, wound around the necks of 2 lions. ", Geghard Monastery Cut from Rockby James Blake Wiener (CC BY-NC-SA). Among the most elaborate carvings is that of a lion attacking an ox, which was symbolic of the Proshyan princes’ authority and munificence. The main architectural complex was completed in the 13th century AD and consists of the cathedral, the adjacent narthex, eastern and western rock-cut churches, the family tomb of Proshyan princes, Papak’s and Ruzukan’s tomb-chapel, as well as various cells and numerous rock-cut cross-stones (khachkars).

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